2019 August Menangle Waste Water Historic Context Report Illustration of the Nepean River close to the ford at Menangle. [SLNSW: Captn Robert Marsh Westmacott, River Nepean near Menangle Ford, N.S.W., 1831-1852, Dixon Library, Pe 264] Aboriginal History & CultureGovernmentalIndustrialLocalArchaeologicalSydney SurroundsResearchHistory Author: Liz Gorman Client: Unearthed Archaeology & Heritage, for Sydney Water In an increasing number of development projects, it is really important to know what is UNDER the ground during the planning phase. Sometimes that non-descript cow paddock may be harbouring traces of an old road, foundations of early colonial buildings, or indigenous relics. Knowing what traces of history could be potentially disturbed by earthworks assists in selecting options that will present a 'path of least resistance' for a development. This historic context report was commissioned to do just that: inform an assessment of archaeological potential so that a line could be chosen to run a new system of waste water piping across the Nepean River from Menangle to Menangle Park. Following an introduction outlining the exploration and initial European occupation phases, a brief land-use history is provided as a guide as to the type and location of archaeological relics likely to be found in each area. Also included is a selection of maps, plans and aerial photographs documenting the sequence of development under European occupation.